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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2011;49(6): 351-354.
doi: https://doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.351
Targeting a Safe Entry Point for C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation in Patients with Atlantoaxial Instability.
Hyoung Joon Chun, Koang Hum Bak
Department of Neurosurgery, Hanyang University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. pkh2325@hanyang.ac.kr
This investigation was conducted to evaluate a new, safe entry point for the C2 pedicle screw, determined using the anatomical landmarks of the C2 lateral mass, the lamina, and the isthmus of the pars interarticularis.
Fifteen patients underwent bilateral C1 lateral mass-C2 pedicle screw fixation, combined with posterior wiring. The C2 pedicle screw was inserted at the entry point determined using the following method : 4 mm lateral to and 4 mm inferior to the transitional point (from the superior end line of the lamina to the isthmus of the pars interarticularis). After a small hole was made with a high-speed drill, the taper was inserted with a 30 degree convergence in the cephalad direction. Other surgical procedures were performed according to Harm's description. Preoperatively, careful evaluation was performed with a cervical X-ray for C1-C2 alignment, magnetic resonance imaging for spinal cord and ligamentous structures, and a contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional computed tomogram (3-D CT) for bony anatomy and the course of the vertebral artery. A 3-D CT was checked postoperatively to evaluate screw placement.
Bone fusion was achieved in all 15 patients (100%) without screw violation into the spinal canal, vertebral artery injury, or hardware failure. Occipital neuralgia developed in one patient, but this subsided after a C2 ganglion block.
C2 transpedicular screw fixation can be easily and safely performed using the entry point of the present study. However, careful preoperative radiographic evaluation, regardless of methods, is mandatory.
Key Words: Atlantoaxial instability; C2 pedicle screw; Entry point; Technique
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