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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 1974;3(1): 15-26.
A Clinical Study on the Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Patients with Cerebral Injuries.
Jun Ki Kang, Jin Un Song
Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Medical College, Seoul, Korea.
Ninety three patients, who sustained craniocerebral injuries were studied and followed up for detection of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone from their admission to the time of their recovery. Their electrolytes in serum and urine, and fluid balance were examined at frequent intervals. Ten cases have manifested. "The Syndrome of the Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone"(S.I.S.A.D.H.). 1. For the detection of the presence of S.I.S.A.D.H., body weight, fluid balance, central venous pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, B.U.N. and creatinine content of the serum as well as sodium, potassium, chloride, B.U.N. and creatinine content of the serum as well as sodium, potassium, chloride and 17-ketesteroid content of 24 hours urine specimen had been measured every 2 or 3 days interval, from their admission. 2. To establish the diagnosis of S.I.S.A.D.H., the following conditions were observed. First, there was no evidence of dehydration, second, the level of the sodium content of the serum was decreased below 125mEq/L and third, the amount of urinary sodium was persistently increased. However the functions of the kidney and adrenal gland were normal. 3. In the cases of S.I.S.A.D.H. among Korean craniocerebral injuries, the amount of sodium excreted in the urine was above 110mEq/L. On the other hand, 27 Koreans without craniocerebral injury or pulmonary complication, who had hospital diet which contained about 15gms. of NaCl, the average value of sodium excreted in the urine was 95mEq/L although there had been great individual differences. 4. Out of 33 patients with brain contusion, 4 manifested S.I.S.A.D.H., 27 with epidural hematoma there were 4 cases, of 15 cases of subdural hematoma, there was one case and also one cases of S.I.S.A.D.H. was found among the 11 cases of compound comminuted depressed fracture of the skull. 5. Among the 93 cases of craniocerebral injuries, 10 of them which is equivalent to 10.8% developed S.I.S.A.D.H. In there cases, improvement of the syndrome was observed in a few days by limitation of daily in take to 600cc. The patient who has shown rather severe hyponatremia, the condition was improved by parenteral injection of 3% saline solution with fluid restriction. 6. Among the cases with S.I.S.A.D.H. it was discovered that 3 of them had infection or complications of the lung. 7. Clinical findings among these patients with S.I.S.A.D.H. were:Three cases had mental disturbance, two with anorexia, one had vomiting and one with convulsions. In all the cases consciousness and muscular activity were somewhat impaired. 8. Aside from the patients with craniocerebral injuries, S.I.S.A.D.H. was observed in one case of aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery.
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