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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 1990;19(10-12): 1329-1338.
The Plasma Catecholamine Levels and Prognosis in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.
Byung Kyu Park, Dong Won Kim, Eun Ik Son, Jung Kyo Lee, Man Bin Yim, In Hong Kim
Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Taegu, Korea.
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating the stress response attends traumatic brain injury. Plasma dopamine(DA), epinephrine(E), norepinephrine(NE) levels were measured in 26 severe traumatically brain injured patients to determine whether catecholamine levels obtained within 24 hours after injury provide reliable prognostic endogenous markers of outcome. Patient outcome was determine at 1 week using the Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS) and at the time of discharge the Glasgow Outcome Scale(GOS), 7 patients with diseases except those with a severe traumatic brain injury were selected as a control group. Firstly, we analyzed the difference of the average DA, E, and NE between the control group and severe traumatic brain injury patients. Secondly, we analyzed the difference of the average catecholamine levels in the 3 groups according to admission GCS scores(respectively 3~4, 5~7, 8~9). Third, we analyzed the difference of the average catecholamine levels in the 5 groups according to GOS scores at 1 week(respectively dead, 3~4, 5~7, 8~11, >11). Finally, we analyzed the difference of the average catecholamine levels in the 5 groups according to GOS at the time of discharge. As a result, there was no statical difference between the level of DA in the control group and those of the severe brain injury patients. But the level of E an NE in the experimental group were higher than the control group(respectively p<0.03, p<0.04). The admission GCS score correlated highly with the catecholamine levels(NE : r=0.69, p<0.001 ; E ; r=0.42, p<0.03 ; DA ; r=0.42, p<0.03). In patients with admission GCS of 3 to 4, NE levels increaed fourfold above other group(p<0.005). In the 13 patients with GCS scores of 3 or 4 on admission. NE levels predicted outcome at 1 week. All two patients with NE levels less then 750 pg/ml were survived, while 10 of 11 with NE levels greater than 750 pg/ml were died(p<0.02). The levels of NE was significantly higher in patients who died than in those with better outcome(p<0.02). Therefore, these findings indicated that the level of circulating NE is an excellent endogenous marker that appear to reflect the extent of brain injury and that may predict the likelihood of recovery.
Key Words: Sympathetic nervous system; Stress respone; Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Endogenous markers
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