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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society > Volume 25(5); 1996 > Article
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 1996;25(5): 1036-1046.
Causes of Mortality in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
Hack Gun Bae, Jae Won Doh, Kyeong Seok Lee, II Gyu Yun, Bark Jang Byun
Department of Neurosurgery, Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Chonan, Korea.
ABSTRACT
To investigate the causes of death in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, 460 consecutive patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage were reviewed. Angiography was not performed in 78 patients due to poor clinical conditions or discharge against admission. Of all these patients, 54(69.2%) died, 28 from serious clinical condition, 21 from rebleeding, 3 from pulmonary complications. 1 from vasospasm, and 1 with unknown causes. Thirty-eight patients were angiographically negative, of which 6(15.8%) died, 3 due to rebleeding, 2 due to poor clinical condition, and 1 due to cerebral infarction caused by vasospasm. Of the 344 patients who had an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. 74 were discharged against admission or died before the surgery. The remaining 270 patients underwent aneurysm clipping. Early surgery(within 72 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage) was performed in 151 patients, intermediate surgery (between Day 4 and 7 post SAH) in 74, and late surgery(Day 8 or later after SAH) in 45. Fifty-one patients (18.9%) died after aneurysm clipping. The remaining 270 patients underwent aneurysm clipping. Early surgery(within 72 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage) was performed in 151 patients, intermediate surgery(between Day 4 and 7 post-SAH) in 74, and late surgery(Day 8 or later after SAH) in 45, Fifty-one patients(18.9%) died after aneurysm clipping. The causes were vasospasm in 17, complications related to surgery in 13, poor clinical condition in 12, preoperative rebleeding in 7, and other systemic condition in 2. A total of 59 patients suffered at least one rebleeding after the initial hemorrhage ; these patients had a mortality rate of 76.3% and the highest rate of rebleeding occurred within the first 24 hours after initial hemorrhage. Vasospasm and rebleeding were the leading causes of mortality in addition to the initial bleeding. Predictors for mortality included poor clinical grade, early surgery in patients aged 60 years or more, and association with intracerebral hematoam, intraventricular hemorrhage, or subdural hematoma.
Key Words: Causes of mortality; Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm; Rebleeding; Vasospasm
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