| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Editorial Office |  
top_img
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society > Volume 30(9); 2001 > Article
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2001;30(9): 1094-1102.
Neurovascular Morphometric Aspect in the Region of Cranio-Cervical Junction.
Kyu Lee, Hack Gun Bae, soon Kwan Choi, Seok Mann Yun, Jae Won Doh, Kyeong Seok Lee, Il Gyu Yun, Bark Jang Byun
Department of Neurosurgery, Soonchunhyang University Chonan Hospital, Chonan, Korea.
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVE:
During the trans-condylar or trans-jugular approach for the lesion of cranio-cervical junction(CCJ), its necessary to identify the accurate locations of vertebral artery(VA), internal jugular vein(IJV) and its related lower cranial nerves. These neurovascular structures can also be damaged during the operation for vascular tumor or traumatic aneurysm around extra-jugular foramen, because of their changed locations. To reduce the neurovascular injury at the operation for CCJ, morphometric relationship of its surrounding neurovascular structures based on the tip of the transverse process of atlas(C1 TP), were studied. MATERIALS AND
METHODS:
Using 10 adult formalin fixed cadavers, tip of mastoid process(MT) and TPs of atlas and axis were exposed bilaterally after removal of occipital and posterior neck muscles. Using standard caliper, the distances were measured from the C1 TP to the following structures: 1) exit point of VA from C1 transverse foramen, 2) branching point of muscular artery from VA, 3) entry point of VA into posterior atlanto-occipital membrane(AOM), 4) branching point of C-1 nerve. In addition, the distances were measured from the mid-portion of the posterior arch of atlas to the entry point of the VA into AOM and to the exit point of the VA from C1 transverse foramen. After removal of the ventrolateral neck muscles, neurovascular structures were exposed in the extra-jugular foraminal region. Distances were then measured from the C1 TP to the following structures: 1) just extra-jugular foraminal IJV and lower cranial nerves, 2) MT and branching point of facial nerve in parotid gland. In addition, distance between MT and branching point of facial nerve was measured.
RESULTS:
The VA was located at the mean distance of 12mm(range, 10.5-14mm) from the C1 transverse foramen and entered into the AOM at the mean distance of 24mm(range, 22.8-24.4mm) from the C1 TP. The mean distance from the mid portion of the C1 posterior arch was 20.6mm(range, 19.1-22.3mm) to the entry point of the VA into AOM and 38.4mm(range, 34-42.4mm) to the exit point of the VA from C1 transverse foramen. Muscular artery branched away from the posterior aspect of the transverse portion of VA below the occipital condyle at the mean distance of 22.3mm(range, 15.3-27.5mm) from the C1 TP. The C-1 nerve was identified in all specimens and ran downward through the ventroinferior surface of the transverse segment of VA and branched at the mean distance of 20mm(range, 17.7-20.3mm) from the C1 TP. The IJV was located at the mean distance of 6.7mm(range, 1-13.4mm) ventromedially from the lateral surface of the C1 TP. The XI cranial nerve ran downward on the lateral surface of the IJV at the mean distance of 5mm(range, 3-7.5mm) from the C1 TP. Both IX and X cranial nerves were located in the soft tissue between the medial aspect of the internal carotid artery(ICA) and the medial aspect of the IJV at the mean distance of 15.3mm(range, 13-24mm) and 13.7mm(range, 11-15.4mm) from the C1 TP, respectively. The IX cranial nerve ran downward ventroinferiorly crossing the lateral aspect of the ICA. The X cranial nerve ran downward posteroinferior to the IX cranial nerve and descended posterior to the ICA. The XII cranial nerve was located between the posteroinferior aspect of the IX cranial nerve and the posterior aspect of the ICA at the mean distance of 13.3mm(range, 9-15mm) ventromedially from the C1 TP. The distance between MT and C1 TP was 17.4mm(range, 12.5-23.9mm). The VII cranial nerve branched at the mean distance of 10.2mm(range, 6.8-15.3mm) ventromedially from the MT and at the mean distance of 17.3mm(range, 13-21mm) anterosuperiorly from the C1 TP.
CONCLUSION:
This study facilitates an understanding of the microsurgical anatomy of CCJ and may help to reduce the neurovascular injury at the surgery around CCJ.
Key Words: Craniocervical junction; Vertebral artery; Cranial nerves; Microsurgical anatomy
Editorial Office
#402, 27 Chilparo, Jung-gu, Seoul 04511, Korea
TEL: +82-2-525-7552   FAX: +82-2-525-7554   E-mail: kns61@neurosurgery.or.kr
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © Korean Neurosurgical Society. All rights reserved.                 Developed in M2PI
Close layer
prev next