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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2001;30(11): 1300-1307.
Surgery in Patients with Previous Resection of the Epileptogenic Zone Due to Intractable Epilepsy.
Jae Yeoup Kim, Ha Young Choi, Young Hyeoun Kim
1Department of Neurosurgery, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Chonju, Korea.
2Department of Neurology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Chonju, Korea.
3Department of Research Institute for Clinical Medicine Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Chonju, Korea.
PURPOSES: This study reports the possible causes of seizure recurrence in patients underwent previous epilepsy surgery, and surgical strategy for resection of the additional epileptogenic zone locating at the distant area to the site of first resection.
A total of 10 patients with previous surgery due to intractable epilepsy were studied. Five of these underwent standard temporal lobectomy, four extratemporal resection, and one corticoamygdalectomy. Seizure outcome of these were class III-IV. Evaluation methods for reoperation included MRI, 3D-surface rendering of MRI, PET, prologned video-EEG recording with surface electrodes and subdural grid electrodes. Additional resection was done in the frontal lobe in two, in the temporal lobe in three, in the parietal lobe in two, and in the supplementary sensori-motor area in two. Tumor in the superior frontal gyrus in the left hemisphere was removed in one patient. Extent of resection was decided based on the results of ictal subdural grid EEGs and MRI findings. Awake anesthesia and electrocortical stimulation were performed in the two patients for defining the eloquent area.
Histopathologic findings revealed extratemporal cortical dysplasia in six, hippocampal sclerosis and cortical dysplasia of the temporal neocortex in one, neuronal gliosis in two, and meningioma in one. Previous pathology of the five patients with cortical dysplasia in the second operation was hippocampal sclerosis plus cortical dysplasia of the temporal neocortex. After reoperation, seizure outcomes were class I in six, class II in three, class III in one at the mean follow-up period of 17.5 months. Characteristically, patients in class II-III after reoperation showed histopathologic findings of hippocampal sclerosis plus temporal neocortical cortical dysplasia plus extratemporal cortical dysplasia.
Seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery was related with the presence of an additional epileptogenic zone distant to the site of first operation, and the majority of the histopathology of the surgical specimens was cortical dysplasia. In particular, hippocampal sclerosis plus temporal neocortical cortical dysplasia was highly related with seizure recurrence in patients with previous operation. In these patients, multimodal evaluation methods were necessary in defining the additional epileptogenic zone.
Key Words: Seizure recurrence; Cortical dysplasia; Multimodal methods
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