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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2005;38(4): 281-286.
Urokinase Thrombolysis for Nonaneurysmal Spontaneous Intraventricular Hemorrhage.
Sung Chul Jin, Sung Kyun Hwang, Do Sang Cho, Sung Hak Kim, Dong Bin Park
1Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea. nshsg@ewha.ac.kr
2Ewha Medical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.
The authors report our experience of urokinase thrombolysis in treating patients harboring nonaneurysmal spontanesous intraventricular hemorrhage(IVH) and evaluated complications, safety and feasibility of this procedure retrospectively. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with nonaneurysmal IVH>15mL without underlying structural etiology or coagulopathy were recruited. The patients with Glasgow Coma Scale(GCS)<5 were excluded. A catheter was directed into the IVH. Hematoma aspiration was followed by instillation of urokinase at the ear level of drainage bag under intracranial pressure monitoring system. This was repeated every 6hours until half of its initial volume. For analysis of prognostic factors, we classified the patients into two groups by Glasgow outcome scale(GOS); good (GOS > or =3) and bad (GOS<3) prognosis group, and performed comparative analysis between two groups. RESULTS: Mean age was 60.2 years. The baseline hematoma size ranged 16 to 72mL. IVH volume reduction was done by an average of 74.2%. As complications, there were 3cases of rebleeding and 2cases of ventriculitis. No intracranial adverse effects were observed during thrombolytic theraphy. At 6months after the procedure, 29patients had achieved a good recovery, 15remained vegetative. 9patients died in hospital. The main good prognostic factors were young age, small IVH volume, and high GCS. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that this relatively easy and safe method of treatment will improve the prognosis. However, further clinical studies also must assess optimal thrombolytic dosage, frequency, and timing of urokinase instillation for safety and effectiveness and must include controlled comparisons of mortality, disability outcome, quality of life, time until convalescence, and cost of care in treated and untreated patients.
Key Words: Intraventricular hemorrhage; Urokinase; Thrombolysis
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