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Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society > Volume 43(6); 2008 > Article
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2008;43(6): 265-269.
doi: https://doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.265
Retrospective Analysis on 76 Cases of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Treated by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.
Jae Gyun Choe, Yong Seok Im, Jong Soo Kim, Seung Chyul Hong, Hyung Jin Shin, Jung Il Lee
Department of Neurosurgery Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul Korea. jilee@skku.edu
ABSTRACT
OBJECTIVE:
Outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in the consecutive 100 cases with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) was analyzed.
METHODS:
Data from initial 100 patients treated with GKS in the authors' institute were reviewed retrospectively. Spetzler-Martin grade at diagnosis were I in 18 patients, II in 27, III in 36, IV in 11, and V in 8. Thirty-five patients had experienced previous bleeding, 27 patients presented with seizure, and 31 patients presented with headache. The mean volume of the lesion was 4.3 cm3 (0.1-29.3 cm3). The median radiation dose delivered to the margin was 20.0 Gy (13-32 Gy). Mean follow-up period was 37.5 months (5-63 months).
RESULTS:
Angiographic follow-up was performed in 48 patients at least 2 years after GKS. Sixteen patients were lost in follow up following 2 years from GKS. Twenty-eight of 48 patients (58%) showed complete obliteration and 20 patients (42%) showed partial obliteration. Seven patients presented with post-GKS hemorrhage. Adverse radiation effect (ARE) was observed at follow-up MRI in 25 of 76 patients, and it was symptomatic in 5 patients. Complete obliteration was confirmed in 24 of 31 (77%) patients with volume less than 4 cm3, meanwhile only 4 of 17 (24%) patients with volume of 4 cm3 or more showed complete obliteration. Complete obliteration rate was 67% with 20 Gy or higher marginal dose, 63% with 15-20 Gy, and 17% with less than 15 Gy.
CONCLUSION:
GKS can provide high rates of obliteration with acceptable risk of morbidity in a subgroup of small AVMs. However, overall outcome in whole spectrum of AVMs, in which large proportion of cases have unfavorable characteristics for radiosurgery, is much worse. More effective therapeutic strategy needs to be developed for large AVMs that are difficult to be managed with current available treatment modalities.
Key Words: Gamma knife radiosurgery; Arteriovenous malformation; Outcome
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