Volume 63 No 3  Cover Story

Intraoperative pictures during exploratory surgery of junctional neural tube defect. Junctional neurulation represents the most recent adjunct to the well-known sequential embryological processes of primary and secondary neurulation. Top : The “upper spinal cord” (primary neural tube) is connected to the “lower spinal cord” (secondary neural tube) by a whitish soft band. Lower left : Close-up view of this bridging band. Lower right : Close-up view of the “upper spinal cord” (primary neural tube) showing a dense leash of nerve roots.